PICU & ECMO Glossary - some words you might hear:

A.C.T.  Activated Clotting Time - a test to see how long the blood takes to clot.
Analgesia Medicines given to control pain. Either given into the stomach, veins or via the rectum (back passage)
 A medicine used to treat infections - it slows the growth of, or destroys, bacteria or germs.
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) test A small amount of blood is taken from an artery and tested to see how much oxygen and carbon dioxide it contains.
Artery Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
BP Blood pressure
Cannula A plastic tube of various different sizes used for giving medicines, or for draining blood from and returning it to the body.
Cannulate To insert a cannula into a part of the body such as a vein or artery
Carotid Artery A large artery in the neck carrying blood from the heart to the brain.
Central line A large cannula placed into a large vein near the heart to give medicines and measure CVP
Chest Drain A tube put in to drain air or fluid from the chest.
Coag Coagulation Screen. A set of blood tests that give information about risk of bleeding
C-Reactive Protein. A blood test that can be used to help tell if an infection is present.
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. A group of techniques to support or add to the function of the kidneys.
Cryo Cryoprecipitate. A blood product that is given to help treat bleeding
CVVH - Continuous Veno-Venous Haemofiltration A type of CRRT (see above) that can also be done on ECMO.
CVP central venous pressure, a measure of the pressure of blood in the veins
Decannulate To remove a cannula.
De-oxygenated blood Blood with a very low oxygen level.
ECMO - Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation A special machine that can support the lungs and/or heart
ECG Electrocardiogram - recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
EEG Electroencephalogram - recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
FBC Full Blood Count - a measure of the cells in the blood. Gives information about infection, anaemia and bleeding risk.
Femoral Artery & Femoral Vein -
one of two pairs of blood vessels that carry blood to and from the legs.
Fresh Frozen Plasma - a blood product that is given to help prevent bleeding 
Heat exchanger Part of the ECMO circuit that warms the blood before it returns to the child’s body.
Heparin A drug used to prevent blood clotting.
Head (or Cranial) ultrasound An ultrasound scan of the head. Done in small babies to check for blood or fluid on the brain.
Infection An invasion of the body, or part of the body, by a bacteria, fungus or virus.
Inotropes Medicines that are given to support the heart and circulation system
IV Intravenous. This means ‘into the veins’.
Jugular A large vein in the neck that carries blood from the head back to the heart.
Liver function tests. A set of blood tests that give information about the liver.
Oscillator (or HFOV) A special ventilator used in severe lung failure that works by vibrating the lungs very fast
Oxygenator Part of the ECMO circuit that removes carbon dioxide from and adds oxygen to the blood.
Paralysing drugs or Muscle Relaxants Medicines given to keep a PICU patient still to assist ventilation.
PD Peritoneal Dialysis. A technique of supporting failed kidneys by adding and taking away fluid from the cavity around the bowels.
 A person with specialised knowledge and training in cardio-pulmonary bypass (heart/lung machine).
Platelets Blood cells which help prevent bleeding.
Pump A device that circulates blood through the circuit and returns it to the child.
Radial artery The larger of the two arteries of the lower arm and hand.
 or Saturations A measure of the percentage oxygen level in the arterial or venous blood.
Sedation - medicine given via a pump into the veins, or into the stomach to keep a patient asleep or in a coma.
Syringe Driver (or Syringe Pump) A device that continuously injects medicine into the veins.
U&Es Urea and Electrolytes. A measure of 6 vital blood chemicals. Gives information about the kidneys and other organs.
Vein Blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart
A machine that breathes for a patient in PICU.